Herald of Civil Procedure

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JUDr., Ph.D.,
Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law of the Faculty of Law
of the Masaryk University (Brno, Czech Republic)

DOI: 10.24031/2226-0781-2019-9-3-154-169

The paper deals with the issue of the definition of the standard of proof, which states that
the standard of proof is a general and abstract legal rule that defines when a fact can be
considered proven. Furthermore, the author deals with the determination of the specific
level when it is possible to say a contentious fact is proven, consequently, with the determination
of the basic rule of standard of proof. In the paper, the author gradually deals
with different concepts that perceive this level in the prevailing likelihood, the likelihood
that overcomes reasonable or other similar doubt, or the likelihood on the level of the certainty
and likelihood stipulated by the legal order on an exactly defined level. The author
is reflecting on these concepts – their advantages and disadvantages (in subchapter 1.3
“Reasonably and Functionally Designed Standard of Proof ”). The author considers the
principle that the standard of proof is to be determined by the rule that the “facts can be
considered proven on which a judge has acquired the internal conviction that they existed
and has not such doubts as to make the conclusion of facts uncertain”. The author also
deals with the normative regulation of the standard of proof in the Czech Republic, referring
in particular to the analysis made by prof. Macur and contends that the factual situation
can be regarded as being reliably established only at a level of probability whose
achievement by the weighing of the evidence is not a doubt of the judge’s conviction of
the existence of the contentious fact which has been the subject of the evidence proceeding
by doubt that would make the factual findings uncertain. The author also deals with the
issue of the standard of proof and its influence on the authority and the factual satisfaction
of a court’sdecision. Expresses his conviction that, in order to the rulings of the courts
to be given due respect, the expectation in court proceedings must be fulfilled. Then the
author analyzes the issue of the standard of proof in relation to the burden of proof and,
subsequently, the standard of proof in relation to the expert examination. In that regard,
the author concludes that an expert report whose conclusion is given in a low or medium
likelihood cannot therefore be regarded as sufficient evidence to prove the contentious
fact, since it does not fulfil the requirement of a reliable finding of the contentious facts
and the provision of a fair and the effective protection of the rights and legitimate interests
of the parties.

Keywords: standard of proof; likelihood; contentious fact; basic rule; prevailing likelihood;
internal conviction; satisfactory ruling; burden of proof.


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Information about the author

Chalupa R. (Brno, Czech Republic) – JUDr., Ph.D., Associate Professor of the
Department of Civil Law of the Faculty of Law of the Masaryk University (70 Veveři,
Brno, 611 80, Czech Republic; e-mail: radim.chalupa.ak@gmail.com).

Recommended citation

Chalupa R. Standard of Proof Applied in Civil Procedure (Mainly in the Czech
Republic). Herald of Civil Procedure, 2019, vol. 9, no. 3, p. 154–169. (In Russian). https://

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