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Application of Non-State Legal Rules, Customs and Usages in Practice of Arbitral Tribunals and Courts

Alexander BĚLOHLÁVEK, 
Doctor of Legal Sciences, 
Professor of the Department of Law of the Faculty of Economics of the Mining Institute – Technical University of Ostrava, 
Head of the Department of International Law and International Relations of the Warsaw Academy of Management, 
President of the World Jurist Association 

We can conclude that non-state rules may include both lex mercatoria, and currently perhaps selected rules of EU law, if no legal relations are involved that have no connection to the European area. Lex mercatoria can be defined as including international trade usages (such as INCOTERMS, which have become rather popular), generally recognised legal principles (for instance, pacta sunt servanda), and collections of principles governing international agreements (e.g. UNIDROIT Principles). Lex mercatoria can be applied both in arbitration and in litigation based on four theoretical approaches. We can also imagine, subject to certain conditions, the application of non-state rules in domestic disputes. The application of non-state legal standards is intertwined with the irreplaceable role of a firstrate pre- and post-graduate system of education, and with interactions between extensive practice, on the one hand, and education and training, on the other. This is the reason why schools and other educational institutions must be addressed, and such quality of lectures and courses must be emphasised that will guarantee a high level of theoretical training and high-quality and solid incentives and information from practice. 

Keywords: autonomy; good faith; INCOTERMS; binding rules; conflict-of-laws rules; lex mercatoria; lex specialis derogat lex generali; international trade; international law; private international law (conflict of laws); unlawful enrichment; EU law; arbitration; soft law; transnational law; UNIDROIT; public policy (ordre public) exception. 

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Information about the author 

Bělohlávek Alexander (Prague, Czech Republic) – Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor of the Department of Law of the Faculty of Economics of the Mining Institute – Technical University of Ostrava, Head of the Department of International Law and International Relations of the Warsaw Academy of Management, President of the World Jurist Association (Law offices Bělohlávek, Jana Zajíce 32, 170 00 Prague, Czech Republic; e-mail: ruslan.popov@ablegal.cz).

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Alexander Bělohlávek