Herald of Civil Procedure
EN
main-photo

We in a citing index:

THE CONCEPT OF ACCUMULATION (CONCENTRATION) OF SOCIALLY SIGNIFICANT PUBLIC ELEMENTS IN LEGAL RELATION AS A BASIS FOR NON-ARBITRABILITY OF A DISPUTE

FOREIGN CIVIL PROCEDURE


V.V. EREMIN

V.V. EREMIN,
Research Assistant, Fundamental Science Department,
Saint Petersburg State University

https://doi.org/10.24031/2226-0781-2021-11-3-191-211

This article examines a relatively new phenomenon of domestic law enforcement practice –
the arbitrability of disputes with a “public element”. Increasingly, the possibility of arbitration
in disputes in which there is a so-called public element is being questioned. The courts do
not disclose the concept of a public element. From the general understanding, it is only
deduced that we are talking about public entities as participants in civil law relations,
about the involvement of public property and budget financing in such relations. All the
above relationships form an urgent problem of arbitration, which has a consequence in
the form of refusal of state courts to enforce arbitral awards. This controversial judicial
practice also gave rise to a controversial concept, which in the doctrine is called the concept
of accumulation (concentration) of socially significant public elements. This concept raises
questions from the point of view of the theoretical perception of this phenomenon: neither
foreign nor domestic doctrine knew this phenomenon. Until this moment, only minor
attempts were made to analyze this concept, as well as to analyze individual public elements
and their impact on the legal relationship in terms of the possibility of a dispute from this
legal relationship to be considered by arbitration. Bridging this gap is this article.

Keywords: arbitration; arbitrability; international commercial arbitration; public policy;
public entity; public element.

References

Akty Moskovskogo gorodskogo suda i Verkhovnogo Suda RF po delam v sviazi s mezhdunarodnym
kommercheskim arbitrazhem, priniatye v 1994 g. [Acts of the Moscow City
Court and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation on Cases in Connection with
International Commercial Arbitration, Adopted in 1994]. Vestnik mezhdunarodnogo
kommercheskogo arbitrazha – International Commercial Arbitration Bulletin, 2019, no. 1,
pp. 342–376. (In Russ.)
Beloglavek A.I. Zashchita prav potrebitelei v arbitrazhe [Consumer Protection in
Arbitration]. Kiev: Takson, 2013. 460 p. (In Russ.)
Bockstiegel K.-H. Public Policy and Arbitrability. In Sanders P. (ed.). Comparative
Arbitration Practice and Public Policy in Arbitration. Deventer: Kluwer Law International,
1987, pp. 177–204.
Born G.B. International Commercial Arbitration. 2nd ed. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer
Law International, 2014. 4260 p.
Bushev A.Iu. Evropeiskii Sud po pravam cheloveka i Konstitutsionnyi Sud RF: sotrudnichestvo
i granitsy vzaimnogo kontrolia [European Court of Human Rights and the
Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation: Cooperation and Boundaries of Mutual
Control]. In Rossiiskii ezhegodnik Evropeiskoi konventsii po pravam cheloveka = Russian
Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights. № 2 (2016): «Avtonomnoe
tolkovanie» Konventsii i «sudeiskii aktivizm» [Russian Yearbook of the European Convention
on Human Rights. No. 2 (2016): “Autonomous Interpretation” of the Convention
and “Judicial Activism”]. Moscow: Statut, pp. 77–126. (In Russ.)
Fouchard Ph., Gaillard E., Goldman B. On International Commercial Arbitration.
The Hague; London; New York: Kluwer Law International, 1999. 1320 p.
Galperin M.L., Pavlova N.V. Kuda idet treteiskoe razbiratel’stvo? [Where Is the Arbitration
Going?]. Zakon – Law, 2019, no. 8, pp. 135–139. (In Russ.)
Iakovlev V.F. O nekotorykh voprosakh primeneniia chasti pervoi Grazhdanskogo
kodeksa arbitrazhnymi sudami [On Some Issues of Application of Part One of the Civil
Code by Arbitration Courts]. Vestnik VAS RF – Bulletin of the Supreme Arbitration Court
of the Russian Federation, 1995, no. 5, pp. 88–100. (In Russ.)
Ivanovskii V.V. Voprosy gosudarstvovedeniia, sotsiologii i politiki [Questions of State
Studies, Sociology and Politics.] Kazan: Typographic lithograph of the Imperial University,
1899. 399 p. (In Russ.)
Kalinin M.S. Arbitrabil’nost’ sporov v svete rossiiskoi kontseptsii «kontsentratsii obshchestvenno
znachimykh publichnykh elementov» [Arbitrability of Disputes in the Light
of the Russian Concept of “Concentration of Socially Significant Public Elements”]. In
Asoskov A.V., Muranov A.I., Khodykin R.M. (eds.). Novye gorizonty mezhdunarodnogo
arbitrazha. Vyp. 4: Sbornik statei [New Horizons of International Arbitration. Issue
4: Collected Papers]. Moscow: Association of Researchers of Private International and
Comparative Law Publ., 2018, pp. 58–85. (In Russ.)
Karabel’nikov B.R. Ispolnenie reshenii mezhdunarodnykh kommercheskikh arbitrazhei.
Kommentarii k N’iu-Iorkskoi konventsii 1958 g. i glavam 30 i 31 APK RF 2002 g.
[Enforcement of Decisions of International Commercial Arbitration. Commentary on
the New York Convention of 1958 and Chapters 30 and 31 of the Arbitration Procedure
Code of the Russian Federation of 2002]. 2nd ed. Moscow: FBK-PRESS, 2003. 488 p.
(in Russ).
Kosarev E.S., Ivanov S.D. VS RF vzial kurs na arbitrabel’nost’ [The Supreme Court
of the Russian Federation Set a Course for Arbitrability]. Treteiskii sud – Arbitration,
2018, no. 3/4, pp. 124–132. (In Russ.)
Krokhalev S.V. Kategoriia publichnogo poriadka v mezhdunarodnom grazhdanskom
protsesse [Public Order Category in International Civil Procedure]. St. Petersburg: St.
Petersburg State University Publishing House; Law Faculty of St. Petersburg State University
Publishing House, 2006. 472 p. (In Russ.)
Kurochkin S.A. Gosudarstvennye sudy v treteiskom razbiratel’stve i mezhdunarodnom
kommercheskom arbitrazhe [State Courts in Arbitration and International Commercial
Arbitration]. Moscow: Wolters Kluwer, 2008. 296 p. (In Russ.)
Muranov A.I. Opredelenie VS RF ot 11 iiulia 2018 g. № 305-ES17-7240 naschet
arbitrabel’nosti sporov po Zakonu o zakupkakh otdel’nymi vidami iuridicheskikh lits:
obmanchivaia Nadezhda [Determination of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation
of 11 July 2018 No. 305-ES17-7240 on the Arbitrability of Disputes Under the Procurement
Law by Certain Types of Legal Entities: Deceptive Hope]. Vestnik mezhdunarodnogo
kommercheskogo arbitrazha – International Commercial Arbitration Bulletin,
2018, no. 1, pp. 215–219. (In Russ.)
Muranov A.I. Publichnoe i chastnoe v arbitrazhe. Analiz zaprosa Verkhovnogo Suda
RF v KS RF naschet nearbitrabel’nosti sporov v sviazi s zakupkami otdel’nymi vidami
iuridicheskikh lits [Public and Private in Arbitration. Analysis of the Request of the
Supreme Court of the Russian Federation to the Constitutional Court of the Russian
Federation Regarding the Non-Arbitrability of Disputes in Connection with Procurements
by Certain Types of Legal Entities]. Vestnik mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo
arbitrazha – International Commercial Arbitration Bulletin, 2018, no. 1(16), pp. 134–
208. (In Russ.)
Musin V.A. Protivorechie publichnomu poriadku kak odno iz osnovanii dlia otkaza
v prinuditel’nom ispolnenii resheniia mezhdunarodnogo kommercheskogo arbitrazha
[Contradiction with Public Order as One of the Grounds for Refusal to Enforce an
International Commercial Arbitration Award]. Treteiskii sud – Arbitration, 2003, no. 6,
pp. 82–86. (in Russ)
Neshataeva T.N. Osparivanie reshenii kommercheskikh arbitrazhei (treteiskikh sudov)
v arbitrazhnykh sudakh: voprosy publichnogo poriadka [Challenging Decisions of Commercial
Arbitration Tribunals (Arbitration Tribunals) in Arbitration Courts: Issues
of Public Policy]. Rossiiskii iuridicheskii zhurnal – Russian Law Journal, 2008, no. 4,
pp. 148–161. (In Russ.)
Neshataeva T.N. Sud i arbitrazh: granitsy chastnogo i publichnogo [Court and Arbitration:
The Boundaries of the Private and the Public]. Rossiiskoe pravosudie – Russian
Justice, 2010, no. 10, pp. 14–30. (In Russ.)
Nesterenko A.V. Kriterii arbitrabil’nosti sporov po zakonodatel’stvu Rossiiskoi Federatsii
[Criteria for Arbitrability of Disputes under the Legislation of the Russian Federation].
Mezhdunarodnyi kommercheskii arbitrazh – International Commercial Arbitration,
2005, no. 4, pp. 27–43. (In Russ.)
Sanders P. Commentary Cases Reported. In Sanders P. (ed.). Yearbook Commercial
Arbitration. Vol. X – 1985. Deventer: Kluwer Law International, 1985, pp. 335–416.
Savenkov A.V. Ispolnenie arbitrazhnykh reshenii ob obrashchenii vzyskaniia na sredstva
byudzhetov: odna iz granei problemy [Enforcement of Arbitral Awards on Levying
Execution on Budget Funds: One of the Facets of the Problem]. In Levaeva L.A., Kolesnikova
R.A. (eds.). Aktual’nye problemy vneshneekonomicheskoi deiatel’nosti v Rossi
iskoi Federatsii: materialy nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii Soveta molodykh uchenykh
[Actual Problems of Foreign Economic Activity in the Russian Federation: Materials of
the Scientific and Practical Conference of the Council of Young Scientists]. Moscow:
All-Russian Academy of Foreign Trade Publ., 2020, pp. 66–69. (In Russ.)
Skvortsov O.Iu. Arbitrabel’nost’ sporov o zakupkakh: bor’ba klassicheskogo tsivilisticheskogo
podkhoda i teorii «nakopleniia publichnogo elementa» [Arbitrability of Procurement
Disputes: The Struggle between the Classical Civil Approach and the Theory
of “Accumulation of a Public Element”]. Treteiskii sud – Arbitration, 2018, no. 1/2,
pp. 130–131. (In Russ.)
Skvortsov O.Iu. Podvedomstvennost’ sporov treteiskim sudam [Jurisdiction of Disputes
to Arbitration Courts]. Treteiskii sud – Arbitration, 2005, no. 1, pp. 19–45. (In Russ.)
Tikhomirov Iu.A. Pravo i publichnyi interes [Law and Public Interest]. Zakonodatel’stvo
i ekonomika – Legislation and Ecinomics, 2002, no. 3, pp. 3–7. (In Russ.)
Tolstoi Iu.K. (ed.). Grazhdanskoe pravo: uchebnik dlia vuzov: v 3 t. T. 1 [Civil Law: Textbook
for Universities. In 3 vols. Vol. 1]. 7th ed. Moscow: Prospekt, 2011. 784 p. (In Russ.)
Tsitovich N.M Prinuditel’noe otchuzhdenie i agrarnyi vopros [Compulsory Alienation
and the Agrarian Question]. Kiev: Printing House of the Imperial University of
St. Vladimir, 1907. 62 p. (In Russ.)
Usoskin S.V. Arbitrabel’nost’ sporov iz dogovorov, zakliuchaemykh v ramkakh
spetsial’nykh protsedur zakupki (Zakon № 223-FZ): shag vpered i pryzhok nazad. Kommentarii
k Opredeleniiu Sudebnoi kollegii po ekonomicheskim sporam VS RF ot 11.07.2018
№ 305-ES17-7240 [Arbitrability of Disputes Arising from Contracts Concluded within
the Framework of Special Procurement Procedures (Law No. 223-FZ): A Step Forward
and a Jump Back. Commentary on the Definition of the Judicial Collegium for
Economic Disputes of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation of 11 July 2018
No. 305-ES17-7240]. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiia RF – Herald of Economic Justice
of the Russian Federation, 2018, no. 12, pp. 22–26. (In Russ.)
Van den Berg A.J. The New York Arbitration Convention of 1958. Deventer: Kluwer
Law International, 1981. 480 p.
Youssef K. The Death of Inarbitrability. In Mistelis L.A., Brekoulakis S.L. (eds.). Arbitrability:
International and Comparative Perspectives. The Hague: Kluwer Law International,
2009, pp. 47–68.

Information about the author

V.V. Eremin (Saint Petersburg, Russia) – Research Assistant, Fundamental Science
Department, Saint Petersburg State University (7-9 Universitetskaia Emb., Saint
Petersburg, 199034, Russia; e-mail: v.v.eremin@spbu.ru).

Recommended citation

Eremin V.V. Kontseptsiia nakopleniia (kontsentratsii) obshchestvenno znachimykh
publichnykh elementov v pravootnoshenii kak osnovanie dlia nearbitrabel’nosti spora [The
Concept of Accumulation (Concentration) of Socially Significant Public Elements in
Legal Relation as a Basis for Non-Arbitrability of a Dispute]. Vestnik grazhdanskogo
protsessa – Herald of Civil Procedure, 2021, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 191–211. (In Russ.) https://
doi.org/10.24031/2226-0781-2021-11-3-191-211

 el_.png   it_.png   book.png

Keywords