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CIVIL-LAW SET-OFF AND SET-OFF MADE WHEN THE COURT SATISFIES COUNTERCLAIMS AND INITIAL CLAIMS: THEORETICAL REFLECTIONS ON THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF LEGAL INSTITUTIONS

PROBLEMS OF CIVIL PROCEDURE


D.B. ABUSHENKO

D.B. ABUSHENKO,
Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Department of Civil Procedure,
Ural State Law University

DOI: 10.24031/2226-0781-2020-10-6-13-29

In this article, the author highlights the main scenarios on the basis of which the coexistence of
two seemingly similar legal institutions could be built – a civil set-off and a set-off made when
the court satisfies counterclaims and initial claims (a scenario based on the displacement of
one institution by another; a scenario based on the permissibility of parallel implementation
of each of the institutions; a scenario based on a mixed model of implementation of each
of the institutions). To identify the scenario that best meets the needs of the turnover and
the goals of effective judicial protection, the differences between these legal institutions are
analyzed (the distinction is made according to specific criteria that either manifest themselves
differently, or are present in one structure, but are absent in another). At the same time, the
analyzed legal institutions (civil offset and offset produced by the satisfaction of the court
counter and initial claims) are distinguished from similar legal phenomena – automatic setoff,
offset by the will of a third person, eventual set-off, objections on the surrender made by
the defendant during the trial and addressed the court, and the offset produced by the court
in the absence of will of the disputing parties in the resolution of the question of legal costs
and making a decision about a bilateral restitution.

Keywords: civil set-off; automatic set-off; eventual set-off; set-off made when the court
satisfies the counterclaim and initial claims; legal consequences of civil set-off made after the
initiation of legal proceedings on the counterclaim; recognition of the claim as a consequence
of civil set-off made after the initiation of legal proceedings on the counterclaim; legal
consequences of a counterclaim aimed at setting off the initial claim; recognition of the legal
validity of the passive obligation and the initial claim when the counterclaim is filed.

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Information about the author

D.B. Abushenko (Yekaterinburg, Russia) – Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor,
Department of Civil Procedure, Ural State Law University (21 Komsomolskaia St., Yekaterinburg,
620137, Russia; e-mail: abushenko73@yandex.ru).

Recommended citation

Abushenko D.B. Grazhdansko-pravovoi zachet i zachet, proizvodimyi pri udovletvorenii
sudom vstrechnogo i pervonachal’nogo iskov: teoreticheskie razmyshleniia o skhodstve
i otlichiiakh pravovykh institutov [Civil-Law Set-off and Set-off Made When the
Court Satisfies Counterclaims and Initial Claims: Theoretical Reflections on the Similarities
and Differences of Legal Institutions]. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa – Herald of
Civil Procedure, 2020, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 13–29. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24031/2226-
0781-2020-10-6-13-29

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