Herald of Civil Procedure

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Doctoral Candidate, Department of Civil Procedure,
Law Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Master of Laws,
Edinburgh School of Law, University of Edinburgh

Substantive due process is commonly recognized as fundamental guarantee of a person’s
access to justice. One of the main conditions guaranteeing observance of the due process is
litigants’ comprehensive sets of procedural rights. Ways in which they can assert their rights
should be exhaustively defined as well. The extent of thoroughness of regulation may be
different but it may not be absent. In that respect estoppel as a legal principle, which lacks
formal requirements in the law, is problematic. The sustainability of judgements which are
reasoned by way of employing a broad undefined concept of estoppel is questioned. One of
the biggest doubts discussed is the viability of an idea where promissory estoppel is used as
a source of a general estoppel concept. It is argued that promissory estoppel being a specific
English obligation law instrument cannot be used as a source of limiting procedural rights
of litigants. As for estoppel by representation, it can be safely adopted because of its nature
as a source of identifying principal issues of fact. It has nothing to do with establishing or
banning any personal or procedural rights. But in order to safely implement this type of
estoppel it has to be thoroughly considered as to how exactly this instrument of procedure
will be married with the current court’s legal duties. It has to decide cases upon all and
truly established issues of fact in question. The problem is not a trivial one as even in
leading English legal texts it is recognized the contradiction between court’s inquisitorial
duties and using of these types of estoppel.

Keywords: due process; estoppel by representation; promissory estoppel; evaluation of
evidence; question of fact; sustainability of judgements.


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Information about the author

A.V. Yakhimovich (Moscow, Russia) – Doctoral Candidate, Department of Civil
Procedure, Law Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Master of Laws, Edinburgh
School of Law, University of Edinburgh (1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991,
Russia; e-mail: anton.yakhimovich@gmail.com).

Recommended citation

Yakhimovich A.V. Ob estoppel v rossiiskom grazhdanskom sudoproizvodstve: voprosy
teorii i praktiki [Estoppel in the Context of Russian Civil Procedure: Aspects of Theory
and Practice]. Vestnik grazhdanskogo protsessa – Herald of Civil Procedure, 2021, vol. 11,
no. 4, pp. 229–252. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.24031/2226-0781-2021-11-4-229-252 

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