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Origin of Legal Responsibility in Russian Judicial Procedure
Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Ecological,
Labor Law and Civil Procedure of the Law Faculty of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
The article discusses the history and development of civil procedure law, provides an overview of the major historically important sources of Russian law from the period of formation of the Russian state until the end of the XVIII century. Particular attention is paid to the separation of civil proceedings from criminal proceedings, the creation of the Institute of legal responsibility in a civil procedure. The article examines the key sources of the Russian law and the transformation of legislation prior to reform the judicial system by Peter I and Catherine II. The author notes that in sources of ancient law, judicial procedure was common in both civil and criminal cases, but the branch of civil proceedings from criminal originated from the position of judicial and state charters. The first rudiments of legal responsibility for violations against justice occurred in the period of formation of the centralized Moscow state. The first written sources that contain measures of legal responsibility for violations of judicial procedure can be considered judicial charters. Law Book of 1497 contains provisions on legal liability for the parties in the process, and prohibiting rules for a persons administering justice appeared in this Law Book. Law Book of 1550 already has secured regulatory sanctions for persons carrying out justice. In the conditions of transition of the Russian state from the estate-representative monarchy to absolutism civil procedure separate from the criminal is formed, the administration of justice in civil cases is provided by the possibility of application to infringers of measures of legal liability as a criminal-legal nature and proprietary nature, similar in its nature to modern procedural fines of an administrative nature, as well as of civil nature.
Keywords: civil procedure law; history of civil procedure; reform of judicial system; legal responsibility.
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Information about the author
Zagidullin R.M. (Kazan) – Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Ecological, Labor Law and Civil Procedure of the Law Faculty of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (Kazan, Kremlyovskaya St., 18; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).