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Reform or Counter-reform of Civil Proceedings in Russia at the End of the 19th Century?

O.I. Zolotova, 
Assistant of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law 
of the Law Faculty of the FGBOU VPO «Kursk State University» 

The article is devoted to research of reforming of civil proceedings in Russia at the end of the 19th century through the introduction of new orders of consideration of cases. The author analyzes changes in the light of correlation of phenomena of «reforms» and «counterreforms». In pre-revolutionary Russian science there were two points of view on the understanding of competitiveness and roles of the court and the parties in the process. Representatives of the first course considered that the parties should act as main actors of civil proceedings, movement of the process depends on their will, i.e. civil procedure appears as the struggle of independent, autonomous citizens who choose their own way of solving their conflict. According to the second approach the court must control the process, to be a participant of proceedings. Purpose of civil proceedings, thus, is not only permission of a concrete civil case, but also ensuring of general welfare. This approach can be characterized, in turn, as social.

Keywords: civil proceedings; types of civil proceedings; adversarial procedure; investigative procedure; reform; counter-reform.

References 

Annenkov K.N. Usmotrenie suda v grazhdanskom protsesse [Discretion of the Court in Civil Procedure]. Zhurnal grazhdanskogo i ugolovnogo prava = Journal of Civil and Criminal Law, 1889, vol. III–IV, pp. 54–116. (In Russian) 
Bijushkina N.I. K voprosu o ponyatii kontrreform 80–90-h gg. XIX v. v Rossii [To the Question about the Concept of Counter-reforms of the 80–90s of the 19th Century in Russia]. Rossijskii yuridicheskii zhurnal = Russian Law Journal, 2011, no. 5, pp. 209–215. (In Russian)
Vas’kovskij E.V. Uchebnik grazhdanskogo protsessa [Textbook of Civil Procedure]. Moscow, 1913. (In Russian) 
Vilenskij B.V. Sudebnaya reforma i kontrreforma v Rossii [Judicial Reform and Counter-reform in Russia]. Saratov, 1969. (In Russian) 
Galaj Ju.G. Rossijskaya administratsiya i sud vo vtoroj polovine XIX veka (1866–1889) [Russian Administration and the Court in the Second Half of the 19th Century (1866– 1889)]: Dissertation … Candidate of Legal Sciences. Minsk, 1980. (In Russian) 
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Demichev A.A. Sudebnaya kontrreforma ili krizis sudebnoj sistemy Rossii v 70–80-e gody XIX v.: novii vzglyad na reshenie staroj problemy [Judicial Counter-reform or the Crisis of the Judicial System of Russia in the 70–80s of the 19th Century: A New Look at Solving of the Old Problem]. Gosudarstvo i pravo = State and Law, 2012, no. 10, pp. 66–74. (In Russian) 
Zavadskij V.R. Ponuditel’noe ispolnenie i uproshchennoe sudoproizvodstvo (Primechaniya k novym zakonam) [Compellent Performance and Simplified Proceedings (Notes to New Laws)]. Yuridicheskij vestnik = Legal Bulletin, 1892, vol. 3, pp. 423–449. (In Russian) Zaharov V.V. Problemy formirovaniya ponyatijno-kategorial’nogo apparata istorikopravovyh issledovanij grazhdanskogo protsessa v Rossii [Problems of Formation of the Conceptual-categorical Apparatus of Historical-Legal Studies of Civil Procedure in Russia]. Uchenye zapiski: elektronnii nauchnii zhurnal Kurskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta = Teaching Notes: Electronic Scientific Journal of the Kursk State University, 2013, no. 2 (26) (http://www.scientific-notes.ru/pdf/030-028.pdf). (In Russian) 
Zaharov V.V. Reformirovanie otechestvennogo grazhdanskogo sudoproizvodstva v kontse XIX v. [Reformation of National Civil Proceedings at the End of the 19th Century]. Istoriya gosudarstva i prava = History of State and Law, 2012, no. 15, pp. 18–22. (In Russian) 
Zaharov V.V. Sud i institut ispolneniya sudebnyh reshenij po grazhdanskim delam v Rossijskoj imperii pervoj poloviny XIX stoletiya: zakonodatel’nye osnovy i problemy ih prakticheskoj realizatsii (istoriko-pravovoe issledovanie) [Court and the Institute of Enforcement of Court’s Decisions in Civil Cases in the Russian Empire in the First Half of the 19th Century: Legislative Framework and Problems of Its Practical Implementation (Historical and Legal Research)]. Kursk, 2008. (In Russian) 
Kozyavin A.A. Sud’ba sudebnyh reform v Rossii: vek XIX i vek XXI [Fate of Judicial Reforms in Russia: the 19th Century and the 21st Century]. Aktual’nye problemy rossijskogo prava = Actual Problems of Russian Law, 2014, no. 4, pp. 637–644. (In Russian) 

Information about the author: 

Zolotova O.I. (Kursk) – Assistant of the Department of Constitutional and Administrative Law of the Law Faculty of the FGBOU VPO «Kursk State University» (305000, Kursk, Radishchev st., 29; e-mail: olga17.10.1989@yandex.ru).

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O.I. Zolotova