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PRESUMPTIONS AND FICTIONS IN ARBITRATION PROCEDURE

PROBLEMS OF CIVIL PROCEDURE


I.V. RESHETNIKOVA

I.V. RESHETNIKOVA,
Chairman of the Arbitration Court of the Ural District,
Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor,
Honored Lawyer of the Russian Federation

The article discusses the place of presumptions and fictions in procedure of proof, impact of
presumption on distribution and redistribution of the burden of proof. On the basic of court
practices it shows relationship of the presumed facts with the subject of proof, presumption
and exemption from proof. The author analyses the distinction between presumptions
and fictions, their role in procedure of proof. The types of presumptions in Russian and
English civil procedure in their comparison are conceded. The author discovers indirect
presumption, derived from the Law by the highest courts in Russia. An approach to indirect
presumptions is being formed, namely: they must be certain for persons participating in
a case and for judges. The author criticizes opinions of some researchers, who believe, that
in Russian procedure we have presumption of illegal activity of state bodies, coming from
an idea of the specific of distribution of the burden of proof in public cases. The author
believes that legislator has used special distribution of the burden of proof in public cases
for protection “week” party only. This is not a presumption of illegal activity, because the
presumption would be contrary to the constitution principle of legality.

Keywords: burden of proof; redistribution of the burden of proof; subject of proof;
presumption; fiction.

References

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Proof in Civil Proceedings]. Moscow, 2004. (In Russian)
Bojczuk W. Evidence: Textbook. 5th ed. HLT, 1993.
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(In Russian)
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the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, 1995, nos. 2–3. (In Russian)
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1 Определение ВС РФ от 13 июля 2018 г. № 308-ЭС18-2197.
Smola A.A. Standart dokazyvaniya i Verkhovnyj Sud [Standard of Evidence and
Supreme Court]. Vestnik ekonomicheskogo pravosudiya = Herald of Economic Justice,
2018, no. 8. (In Russian)
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Responsibility]. Gosudarstvo i pravo = State and Law, 1999, no. 7. (In Russian)

Information about the author

Reshetnikova I.V. (Yekaterinburg, Russia) – Chairman of the Arbitration Court
of the Ural District, Doctor of Legal Sciences, Professor, Honored Lawyer of the Russian
Federation (32 Lenina St., Yekaterinburg, 620075, Russia; e-mail: f09.ireshetnikova@
arbitr.ru).

Recommended citation

Reshetnikova I.V. Prezumptsii i fiktsii v arbitrazhnom protsesse [Presumptions and
Fictions in Arbitration Procedure]. Вестник гражданского процесса = Herald of Civil
Procedure, 2019, no. 1, p. 16–28. (In Russian) DOI: 10.24031/2226-0781-2019-9-1-16-28

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